Scientific Name: Tilapia, Oreochromis and Sarotherodon spp.
Tilapia live in our freshwater ecosystems, but can also tolerate water that contains low levels of salt. Tilapia prefer warmer water temperatures such as our Queensland Fresh Waterways where they breed uninterrupted. Since the introduction into our waterways, Tilapia have become problematic invasive species and populations have flourished to a point where our Native Species are placed in danger of being wiped out in certain areas.
Large individuals have been reported to prey on small fish and occasionally cannibalize their own young if food is scarce of if the young are not quick enough to leave the males area.
Tilapia are readily caught as a by-catch by fishermen targeting species such as Australian Bass, Spangled Perch, Freshwater Mullet & Gar.
Angler interest in tilapia has spiked with the Call to Arms in the attempt to stem the spread of this noxious pest. One good thing the Tilapia has going for it is the fight it puts up for fishermen using light tackle, it is a great Sports Fish for the whole family to enjoy!
At the end of the day, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry consider them invasive species and we all must treat them as such. Unfortunately the following is the hard and fast fact:
“This fish is declared noxious in Queensland. It is unlawful to possess noxious fish alive or dead or to use them as bait. It is illegal to place or release noxious fish alive or dead into Queensland waterways. Penalties of up to $200,000 apply” This is a complete copy from the web site: http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/fisheries/pest-fish/noxious-fish/tilapia
Adults thrive in shallow standing waters. Inhabit reservoirs, rivers, creeks, drains, swamps and tidal creeks; commonly over mud bottoms, often in well-vegetated areas. Also found in shallow warm weedy pools of sluggish streams, canals, and Lagoons. Most common in blind estuaries and coastal lakes, but usually absent from permanently open estuaries and open sea and from fast-flowing waters.
Tilapia have it over our Native Species, they will tolerate low dissolved oxygen levels which normally kills the local guys, Tilapia can utilize atmospheric oxygen when water oxygen levels drop.
Most of the Tilapia are known weed eaters and normally will not take baits presented by fishermen, however other species of the Tilapia family will readily take baits such as Garden Worms, Shrimp, Bread baits, insects and Corn!
It is no wonder that Tilapia take over the waterways, check out their breeding habits:
- Reach sexual maturity at 15 centimeter length, but stunted fish may breed at 6-7 centimeters and at an age of just over 2 months.
- Female Tilapia deposits 100-1700(1800) eggs and the males place their milt over them.
- Eggs and milt are sucked up by the female.
- Fertilization is reported to sometimes occur in the mouth of the female.
- Females incubate eggs alone.
- It is possible, albeit rare, that males take up some eggs after spawning, but they almost always eat them soon after.
- Females school together while mouth-brooding, they cease to feed and subsist on food reserves stored in their body.
- Females may spawn a full clutch with just one male, or may spawn with several different males in a series.
- Water is circulated over the eggs by chewing movements of the jaws.
- Fry hatch in the female’s mouth after 3-5 days, depending on the water temperature.
- The young are released from the mouth in 10-14 days, but remain near the female and enter the mouth if threatened until about 3 weeks old.
Effectively we need to remove as many of these fish as we can from our waterways however we need to do it in the right way. The last thing we want is for people to receive hefty fines for breaching the Law.
Some things to remember:
- Check local Regulations regarding where you want to fish as some areas may have a “No Fish” rule in place.
- Check with the Property Owner if you plan on fishing on Private Property.
- Check if there is an allocated area to dispose of the Tilapia I.E Designated rubbish bin or an area where you can bury your Tilapia.
- The contact number for Wildlife Rescue 1300 264 625 just in case you find an injured Turtle, Platypus or other Wildlife.
- First Aid Kit as some areas you may visit will have Snakes and other Hazards!
- A Ruler or Truth Mat and a Camera so you keep a record of the Tilapia you have caught!
Now, if you have a set up ready to go fishing for Bream or Bass then you are ready to start culling a few Tilapia!
- Decide where you will go fishing. Tilapia prefers warm water that is either still or flows very slowly.
- Chose your area where you are going to land your fish, some areas may be covered in weed or grass which may hide things like logs, steep drop offs or other hazards which we forget to look for once we have hooked a fish!
- Keep an eye out for other wildlife like ducks and swans who will no doubt want some of the bait your using, particularly if you’re using Bread or a Dough mix!
- Chose your hooks carefully, you will need a small but strong hook a No6 Longshank Bait Holder Mustad is as good as any.
- Don’t forget to flatten the Barb down, this will make it very easy to remove the hook from not only the Tilapia but also things like Turtles, Mullet and other species.
- The use of a Float may also be helpful, this way if you’re fishing with the kids they will know for sure they have a bite rather than constantly pulling the line in to check! It also adds a bit of extra excitement seeing the float disappear..
- Burley, this can be very useful when bringing the fish to you, use small amounts and try to keep the size of Bread Burley around the same size you will be putting on your hook.
- If you are using baits such as Worms, Insects or Corn then you may not need the Burley.
Rod & Reels
Some people make it a bit more interesting by using a “Pole” or simple Hand-line” but most prefer to stick with the standard “Spin” outfit.
As we said, a rod and reel combo used Bream or Bass will be fine for the job, generally a rod around the 6’-7’ and either 1-3kg up to 2-4kg. Graphite or Fiberglass will be fine, really it is whatever you would normally use.
With the Reel you can start with a 1000 series and work your way up to a 2500 series reel, anything over this will be overkill. However if your gear is larger like a 4000 – 6000 series reel, you don’t need to go out and buy another one which is smaller. The idea is to use what you have and enjoy the time!
If you want to add a bit of “Sport” to the occasion then drop your mainline down to a 3-6lb if you are using Braid or Fireline and about an 6-8lb if you are using Mono. Some of the Tilapia we have found are around the 2kg mark, so imagine the fight you will have on light gear!
Tilapia can be rather picking on some days and will not touch a bait regardless of what you throw at them! Other days the will eat just about anything.
Some of the most effective baits used to date are:
- Garden Worms – Place the hook through the Worms Collar and then a couple of times through the body and you’re done.
- Live Shrimps – Best thing to do is catch them in location and use them live by putting the hook straight through the last segment nearest the tail and let it swim un-weighted.
- Frozen or Dead Shrimps – Rig them as you would a Prawn, removal of the head is optional, place the hook through the underneath of the tail and thread it back up towards the head, it should slide onto the hook effortlessly bringing the hook out just before the head.
- Crickets – dead or alive, place the hook through the body and send it out un-weighted for best results.
- Cicadas – Again just place the hook through the lower part of the body and send out un-weighted. Live Cicadas will make a commotion on top of the water and will bring in all types of predators!
- Dough Baits – If making a Dough bait be sure to add in a bit of Cotton Wool to help the mixture stay on the hook better. Mould the dough around the hook, the weight of the bait should be enough to allow for casting and should sink nice and slow for maximum effect.
- Bread Bait – Make sure your Bread Bait is about the same size as the bread you are using for Burley. Thread your hook through the Bread Bait the best you can and send it out un-weighted, be careful not to cast too hard as the Bead Bait and your hook will be easily separated!
- Corn Kernels – One of the easiest to use, simply place on 4-5 Kernels of Corn to your hook and let it rip! Corn is a very hard bait and it is also great bait for catching Carp (Another Noxious Species).
- Don’t forget to add a Bubble or Pencil Float to your rig, this will also give you a better casting weight if you are fishing un-weighted baits.
A lot of people believe that Tilapia will not take lure however they are known to attack other fish species. Z Man GrubZ, Berkley Shrimps and Isome Worms are just a couple of plastics which have lead to the demise of many Tilapia. Anything around the 2-3” range seem to be on the menu so don’t be afraid to get out there and test out your own collection, the results might just surprise you!
Small Shallow Divers and Vibes are also effective on Tilapia, fishermen chasing Bass and Yellowbelly sometimes end up with a fight on their hands once a Tilapia decides to strike their Jackal, Rapala, Maria or Atomic Hardz. Lures do not need to be expensive and after all you are going to be fishing in reasonably snaggy areas so be prepared to lose a couple of lures or be prepared to go for a swim.
When catching Tilapia we must be mindful of the Queensland Regulations and Legislation in place for the disposal of Noxious Species.
In a nutshell we are not permitted to remove Tilapia or any part of that Tilapia from the area of capture which includes the “Fillets”. Best advice is to place them in a bin, bury them or place them well away from the water but in the same location!
To avoid fines of up to $220,000 please follow the direction of Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry. I have included an extract from their page and the direct link is available at the bottom of this document.
What to do if you catch a Tilapia or Carp
If you catch a noxious fish, kill the fish as quickly and humanely as possible. The most appropriate method may involve stunning the fish via a sharp blow to the back of the head causing brain destruction.
It is an offence to have noxious fish (such as carp and tilapia) in your possession, either dead or alive (except dead Nile perch). You must therefore dispose of the fish as soon as practicable after killing. It is recommended that you do this by burying it a suitable distance from the waterway where it was caught or disposing of it in a rubbish bin.
Referenced Documents and Thanks
I would like to Thank Danielle from Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry who has helped out with some vital information regarding Tilapia and ultimately saving fishermen valuable money in unwanted fines!
While putting this document together I used snippets of information from the sites below. More comprehensive information is available from these sites so check them out if you get a chance or if you need more indepth information.
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